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Founded in February 2005, YouTube is the leader in online video, and the premier destination to watch and share original videos worldwide through a Web experience. YouTube allows people to easily upload and share video clips on and across the Internet through websites, mobile devices, blogs, and email.

Everyone can watch videos on YouTube. People can see first-hand accounts of current events, find videos about their hobbies and interests, and discover the quirky and unusual. As more people capture special moments on video, YouTube is empowering them to become the broadcasters of tomorrow.

YouTube received funding from Sequoia Capital in November 2005 and was officially launched one month later in December. Chad Hurley and Steve Chen proceeded to become the first members of the YouTube management team and currently serve as Chief Executive Officer and Chief Technology Officer respectively.

In November 2006, within a year of its launch, YouTube was purchased by Google Inc. in one of the most talked-about acquisitions to date.

YouTube has struck numerous partnership deals with content providers such as CBS, BBC, Universal Music Group, Sony Music Group, Warner Music Group, NBA, The Sundance Channel and many more.


Yes Learn More>

The Developers

YouTube offers access to the YouTube video repository and community features via a GoogleData ("GData") API.

* Get started with YouTube's APIs at
* Share solutions on the YouTube API Developer Forum
* Keep updated with the Developer API Blog

Legacy API Information

The older API is officially deprecated. If you're developing new projects on the YouTube platform, you should use the new API to ensure support.

See the migration guide for more information about updating websites or applications based on the legacy API.

Learn More>



Multiple Accounts?




This article is about the video hosting website. For the scientific device, see Oscillating U-tube. For the manufacturing company with a similar domain name, see Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment.
YouTube, LLC
Type Subsidiary of Google
Founded 2005
Headquarters San Bruno, California, U.S.
Key people Steve Chen, Founder & CTO
Chad Hurley, Founder & CEO
Jawed Karim, Founder & Advisor
Owner Google Inc.
Slogan Broadcast Yourself
list of localized domain names
Type of site Video hosting service
Advertising Google, AdSense
Registration Optional
(required to upload and to comment on videos)
Available in 12 languages
Launched February 15, 2005
Current status Active

Screenshot of home page
YouTube headquarters in San Bruno
YouTube headquarters in San Bruno

YouTube is a video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. YouTube was created in mid-February 2005 by three former PayPal employees.[1] The San Bruno-based service uses Adobe Flash technology to display a wide variety of user-generated video content, including movie clips, TV clips and music videos, as well as amateur content such as videoblogging and short original videos. In October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had reached a deal to acquire the company for US$1.65 billion in Google stock. The deal closed on November 13, 2006.[2]

Unregistered users can watch most videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Some videos are available only to users of age 18 or older (e.g. videos containing potentially offensive content). The uploading of videos containing pornography, nudity, defamation, harassment, commercial advertisements and material encouraging criminal conduct is prohibited. Related videos, determined by title and tags, appear onscreen to the right of a given video. In YouTube's second year, functions were added to enhance user ability to post video 'responses' and subscribe to content feeds.

Few statistics are publicly available regarding the number of videos on YouTube. However, in July 2006, the company revealed that more than 100 million videos were being watched every day, and 2.5 billion videos were watched in June 2006. 50,000 videos were being added per day in May 2006, and this increased to 65,000 by July.[3] In January 2008 alone, nearly 79 million users had made over 3 billion video views.[4]

In August 2006, The Wall Street Journal published an article revealing that YouTube was hosting about 6.1 million videos (requiring about 45 terabytes of storage space), and had about 500,000 user accounts.[5] As of April 9, 2008, a YouTube search returns about 83.4 million videos and 3.75 million user channels.[6][7]

As of Q1 2008, YouTube is not profitable, with its revenues being noted as "immaterial" by Google in a regulatory filing.[4] Its bandwidth costs are estimated at approximately $1 million a day.[4] It is estimated that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000, and that around ten hours of video are uploaded every minute.[8][9]

* 1 History
* 2 Social impact
* 3 Terms of service
* 4 Domain name problem
* 5 Criticism
* 6 Blocking
* 7 Spamming
* 8 Technical notes
o 8.1 Video format
o 8.2 Standard and high quality videos
o 8.3 Audio format
o 8.4 Content accessibility
+ 8.4.1 On YouTube
+ 8.4.2 Outside YouTube
+ 8.4.3 On mobile
+ 8.4.4 On TV
+ 8.4.5 On Apple TV, iPhone and iPod touch
o 8.5 Annotations
* 9 Localization
o 9.1 Channel type
* 10 Video rankings
o 10.1 Controversies over video rankings
o 10.2 YouTube Video Awards
o 10.3 Recent events
+ 10.3.1 Political campaigning
+ 10.3.2 CNN-YouTube presidential debates
o 10.4 April Fools'
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links


Main article: History of YouTube

YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.[10] Prior to PayPal, Hurley studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[11] The domain name "" was activated on February 15, 2005,[12] and the website was developed over the subsequent months. The creators offered the public a preview of the site in May 2005, six months before making its official debut.

Social impact

Main article: Social impact of YouTube

The guitar video of Pachelbel's Canon is one of the most popular music videos on YouTube
The guitar video of Pachelbel's Canon is one of the most popular music videos on YouTube

Before the launch of YouTube in 2005, there were few simple methods available for ordinary computer users who wanted to post videos online. With its easy to use interface, YouTube made it possible for anyone who could use a computer to post a video that millions of people could watch within a few minutes. The wide range of topics covered by YouTube has turned video sharing into one of the most important parts of Internet culture.

An early example of the social impact of YouTube was the success of the Bus Uncle video in 2006. It shows an animated conversation between a youth and an older man on a bus in Hong Kong, and was discussed widely in the mainstream media.[13] Another YouTube video to receive extensive coverage is guitar, which features a performance of Pachelbel's Canon on an electric guitar. The name of the performer is not given in the video, and after it received millions of views the New York Times revealed the identity of the guitarist as Jeong-Hyun Lim, a 23-year-old from South Korea who had recorded the track in his bedroom.[14]

Terms of service

According YouTube's terms of service,[15] users may upload videos only with permission of the copyright holder and people depicted in the videos. Pornography, nudity, defamation, harassment, commercial advertisements and material encouraging criminal conduct are prohibited. The uploader grants YouTube a license to distribute and modify the uploaded material for any purpose; this license terminates when the uploader deletes the material from the site. Users may view videos on the site as long as they agree to the terms of service; downloading through one's own means or copying of the videos is not permitted.

Further information: Censorship by Google#YouTube

Domain name problem

YouTube's success unintentionally affected the business of an American company, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment Corp., whose original website address,, was at one time frequently overloaded and shut down by high numbers of visitors unsure about the spelling of YouTube's domain name.[16] At the beginning of November 2006, Universal Tube filed suit in federal court against YouTube,[17] requesting that the domain be transferred to them.[18] As of June 2008, the web address is showing a simple placeholder page, while Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment has moved to According to a WHOIS domain name search, Universal Tube still owns the domain[19]


Main article: Criticism of YouTube

Example of a copyrighted YouTube video claimed by Red De Televisión, Chilevision SA.
Example of a copyrighted YouTube video claimed by Red De Televisión, Chilevision SA.

YouTube has been criticized frequently for failing to ensure that its online content adheres to the law of copyright. At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a screen with the following message:

Do not upload any TV shows, music videos, music concerts or commercials without permission unless they consist entirely of content you created yourself. The Copyright Tips page and the Community Guidelines can help you determine whether your video infringes someone else's copyright.

Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips from television shows, films and music videos on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a takedown notice under the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Organizations including Viacom and the English Premier League have issued lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.[20][21] Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works". Since Viacom issued its lawsuit, YouTube has introduced a system of digital fingerprints that checks uploaded videos against the original content as a means of reducing copyright violation.[22][23]

In July 2008, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The move led to concerns that the viewing habits of individual users could be identified through a combination of their IP addresses and login names. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a set-back to privacy rights". [24] US District Court Judge Louis Stanton dismissed the privacy concerns as "speculative", and ordered YouTube to hand over documents totalling around 12 terabytes of data. Judge Stanton rejected Viacom's request for YouTube to hand over the source code of its search engine system, saying that there was no evidence that YouTube treated videos infringing copyright differently. [25] [26]

YouTube has also faced criticism over the offensive content in some of its videos. Although YouTube's terms of service forbid the uploading of material likely to be considered inappropriate or defamatory, the inability to check all videos before they go online means that occasional lapses are inevitable. Controversial areas for videos have included Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough Disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.[27][28]


Main article: Blocking of YouTube

YouTube has been blocked in several countries since its inception, including Tunisia, Thailand (which has since been lifted) and Iran. Certain video pages were banned as of October 1, 2007 in Turkey, but this was lifted two days later. More recently on January 22, 2008 Turkey banned YouTube once again but this ban was lifted after three days. There is currently a ban on YouTube in Turkey since May 5, 2008. Certain pages are also banned in United Arab Emirates.

On February 23, 2008, Pakistan blocked YouTube due to "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including the display of pictures of the prophet Muhammad.[29] This action by the Pakistani authorities led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for at least two hours.[30] Thousands of Pakistanis undermined the 3-day block using a VPN software called Hotspot Shield.[31] The YouTube ban was lifted on February 26, 2008 after the "offensive material" were removed from the site.[32]

YouTube has been subject to threats of censorship by various countries because of the content it hosts. It was blocked from Mainland China from the 18th October due to the censorship of the Taiwanese flag. URLs to YouTube were redirected to China's own search engine, Baidu. It was subsequently unblocked on the 31st of October.[33]

Schools in certain countries have begun to block access to YouTube due to students uploading videos of bullying behavior, school fights and racist behavior as well as increased bandwidth usage and other inappropriate content.[34]


Main article: Spam targeting video sharing sites

With recent improvements to e-mail spam filtering technology and their wider use, spammers have begun using YouTube as way to advertise: popular videos frequently have comments with links to irrelevant external sites, usually with some enticing statements (such as "Great video, go to <site> for the full version"). To counter this, YouTube has blocked comments with URLs in them since late 2006; if a user tries to post a comment with a URL, it will be discarded and will not show up. As of August 2007, this "feature" seems to have been extended to profile comments as well, although the user will receive an ambiguous "error processing your comment" message. However, posting links is still possible in bulletins, private messages, or group discussions. Also, if a user posts many comments in a short period, they may be asked to complete a CAPTCHA, which was implemented when a notorious spammer abused the lack of a flood control. However, the lack of a CAPTCHA is still present in some areas of the site. Other examples of spammers include users who use non-related-to-video threats (including "Post this message to <number> friends or your mom will die in <number> hours") They may also send messages to a user's inbox (essentially in the form of a plain-text spam email). Some of these spam accounts also posted pornographic videos on YouTube. A slightly newer feature of YouTube is the ability to send invites to people through email by using the "Invite Your Friends" feature. Originally, this feature was indeed a useful feature to build a bigger community using YouTube. When spammers became aware of this, they decided to give it a try and found every email address possible to send random email invites. More so, they've now been able to cheat the system even more.
“ The messages came from moc.ebutuoy|ecivres#moc.ebutuoy|ecivres. […] The messages look like a legitimate YouTube invite, except they include typical spam content like stock pump-and-dump promotions and links to spam Web sites. Many of them use Microsoft's recent XBox 360 hit "Halo 3" as bait, telling the recipient they have won a free copy of the game and to go to a Web site. If they take the bait and click on "," the Web site infects them with the Storm Worm, which has been hanging around since August.[35] ”

Technical notes

Video format

YouTube's video playback technology is based on Macromedia's Flash Player. This technology allows the site to display videos with quality comparable to more established video playback technologies (such as Windows Media Player, QuickTime and RealPlayer) that generally require the user to download and install a web browser plugin in order to view video. Flash also requires a plug-in, but Adobe considers the Flash 7 plug-in to be present on about 90% of online computers.[36] Users can view videos in windowed mode or full screen mode and it is possible to switch modes during playback without reloading it due to the full-screen function of Adobe Flash Player 9. The video can also be played back with third-party media players such as GOM Player, gnash, VLC as well as some ffmpeg-based video players.

Videos uploaded to YouTube are limited to ten minutes in length[37], and a file size of 1024MB (1 Gigabyte). One video at a time can be uploaded through the standard interface, and multiple videos can be uploaded with a Windows based plugin.[38] YouTube converts videos into the Flash Video format after uploading.[39] YouTube also converts content to other formats so that it can be viewed outside of the website (see below).

YouTube accepts uploaded videos in the .WMV, .AVI, .MOV, MPEG and .MP4 formats. It also supports 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded directly from a mobile phone.[40]

Standard and high quality videos
Comparison of high and standard quality YouTube videos (480x360 and 320x240 pixels)
Comparison of high and standard quality YouTube videos (480x360 and 320x240 pixels)

A standard quality YouTube video has a picture 320 pixels wide by 240 pixels high and uses the Sorenson Spark H.263 video codec. The bit rate of the video signal is around 314 kbit/s with a frame rate dependent on the uploaded video.[41]

In March 2008, YouTube launched a feature which allowed some of its videos to be viewed in 'High Quality' format. This format offers the possibility of better video definition (480x360 pixels instead of the standard 320x240 pixels) for any video uploaded after this date. YouTube decides which videos are capable of this improved quality based on the standard of the original upload. Users can choose "always show me higher quality when available" on their video quality settings page in their account pages to switch automatically to the better quality.

YouTube's high quality videos are available in two versions, both of which have a maximum picture size of 480 x 360 pixels. By adding &fmt=6 to the web address of a video, it is played using the H.263 codec with mono sound, and by adding &fmt=18, it is played using the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec with stereo AAC sound.[42]

When asked why YouTube did not choose HD format, the site answered : "Our general philosophy is to make sure that as many people as possible can access YouTube and that videos start quickly and play smoothly. That's one reason why you don't see us racing to call this "Super Duper YouTube HD," because most people don't want to wait a long time for videos to play."[43]

Audio format

Standard quality YouTube videos contain an MP3 audio stream. By default, it is encoded in mono at a bit rate of 64 kbit/s sampled at 22050 Hz, giving an audio bandwidth of around 10 kHz. The default bit rate delivers passable but not hi-fi audio quality. It is possible for a standard quality YouTube video to have a stereo audio track if the movie file is converted to FLV format prior to upload. This can be done with programs, such as ffmpeg for Linux and Windows, ffmpegX for Macintosh or the commercial Riva FLV Encoder for Windows.[44]

Content accessibility

On YouTube

YouTube accepts common video file formats and converts them to Flash Video in order to make them available for online viewing. Since June 2007, newly uploaded videos have also been encoded using the H.264 video standard to enable streaming of YouTube videos on devices that support H.264 streaming.

Outside YouTube

Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML markup which can be used to link to the video or embed it on a page outside the YouTube website, unless the submitter of a video chooses to disable the feature. A small addition to the markup allows the video to play automatically when the webpage loads. These options are especially popular with users of social networking sites. YouTube videos can also be accessed via a gadget which is available for the iGoogle homepage.[45]

YouTube videos are designed to be viewed while connected to the internet, and no official feature allows for them to be downloaded and viewed offline.[46] However, a number of third-party web sites, applications and browser extensions (such as Firefox extensions) exist for this purpose.[47]. Alternatively, .flv files can be copied from the 'Temporary Internet Files' folder in Windows, or the /tmp directory in GNU systems, to a permanent folder. The .flv files can then be viewed and edited directly or converted to other formats using various applications such as VLC media player.

On mobile

YouTube launched its mobile site, YouTube Mobile on 15 June 2007. It is based on xHTML and uses 3GP videos with H.263/AMR codec and RTSP streaming. It is available via a web interface at or via YouTube's Mobile Java Application.


YouTube TV Channel is on Information TV 2, and it started January 7, 2008. The channel is airing video sharing content from the YouTube website.

On Apple TV, iPhone and iPod touch

Apple Inc. announced on 20 June 2007 that YouTube is accessible on the Apple TV after installation of a free software update. Functionality includes browsing by category, searching videos, and the ability for members to log onto their YouTube accounts directly on Apple TV. Access to thousands of the most current and popular YouTube videos are available, and there were plans to add thousands more videos each week. The entire catalog was targeted to be available in fall 2007. According to Apple VP David Moody, the reason for the delay was the need for all current YouTube content to be transcoded to Apple's preferred video standard, H.264.

Apple announced Wednesday, 20 June 2007 that YouTube would be available on iPhone at launch. Streaming is over Wi-Fi or EDGE.

Videos on YouTube for the iPhone are encoded in Apple's preferred H.264 format. All videos are viewed in the horizontal orientation of the phone. As YouTube videos have 4:3 aspect ratio and the iPhone is 3:2, videos must be viewed with black bars on the side (pillarboxed) or may be zoomed to trim some of the top and bottom to fill the screen.

Not all videos were available on iPhone initially because not every video was reencoded to H.264. There are two versions of each video on YouTube, one is higher bandwidth for Wi-Fi use, and one is lower resolution for EDGE or 3G use.

Unlike the Apple TV version, users cannot log in to their own YouTube accounts, but can create a separate favorites list just for the iPhone.


In June 2008, YouTube launched a beta test of Annotations, which can display notes or links within a video. Annotations allow for information to be added, for example stories with multiple possibilities (viewers click to choose the next scene), and links to other YouTube videos. Annotations will not appear on videos embedded outside the YouTube website.[48][49]


On June 19, 2007, Eric E. Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system. The entire interface of the website is now available with localized versions in numerous countries:
Country ↓ URL ↓ Languages ↓ Launch date ↓
Flag of Australia Australia English (Australia) 02007-10-22 22 October 2007[50]
Flag of Brazil Brazil Portuguese (Brazil) 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of Canada Canada English (Canada) 02007-11-06 6 November 2007[52]
Flag of France France French 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of Germany Germany German 02007-11-08 8 November 2007[53]
Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong Chinese (Traditional) 02007-10-17 17 October 2007[54]
Flag of India India English (India) 02008-05-07 7 May 2008[55]
Flag of Ireland Ireland English (Ireland) 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of Italy Italy Italian 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of Japan Japan Japanese 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of South Korea South Korea Korean 02008-01-23 23 January 2008
Flag of Mexico Mexico Spanish (Mexico) 02007-10-10 10 October 2007
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands Dutch 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand English (New Zealand) 02007-10-22 22 October 2007[50]
Flag of Poland Poland Polish 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of Russia Russia Russian 02007-11-13 13 November 2007
Flag of Spain Spain Spanish 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]
Flag of the Republic of China Republic of China (Taiwan) Chinese (Traditional) 02007-10-18 18 October 2007[56]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom English (United Kingdom) 02007-06-19 19 June 2007[51]

Google aims to compete with video-sharing websites like DailyMotion in France. It also made an agreement with local television stations like M6 and France Télévisions to legally broadcast video content.

On October 17, 2007 it was announced that a Hong Kong version had been launched. YouTube's Steve Chen said its next target will be Taiwan.[57][58]

On October 22, 2007 YouTube New Zealand had its launch party, stating that its aim was to help create YouTube celebrities within New Zealand. This was quickly evident with the rise of such New Zealand YouTube shows as Three Best Friends That Live Together and LiveFromJoes.

Plans for YouTube to create a local version in Turkey have run into problems, since the Turkish authorities asked YouTube to set up an office in Turkey, which would be subject to Turkish law. YouTube says that it has no intention of doing this, and that its videos are not subject to Turkish law. Turkish authorities have expressed concerns that YouTube has been used to post videos insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other material offensive to Muslims. [59]

Channel type

Members of are offered to be a part of groups called "Channel Types" that make their channel more distinctive. At one time, when you signed up for a Director account setting, you were offered to have unlimited video length, but that is no longer offered, although the users who joined the "Director" group during that time still have that unlimited video length setting. At that time, they were still also limited to 100MB in video size, but now these accounts are limited to 1024 MB (1GB). The types are:

* YouTuber, a general viewer of YouTube.
* Director, movie makers displaying their videos for YouTube viewers.
* Musician, musicians or bands covering songs or displaying originals or giving lessons on songs, scales, chords, etc.
* Comedian, comedians displaying their comedy bits for YouTube viewers.
* Guru, people who are experienced in a certain field make videos of what they do.
* Non-profit, a status obtained by 501(c)(3) non-profit organizations accepted into YouTube's non-profit program.
* Reporter, civilians or professionals who make videos about local or international news and current events.

Video rankings

YouTube awards videos with honors, the most popular of which is "most viewed"[60] which are divided into four categories: today, this week, this month and all time. Honors include:

* Most Viewed
* Top Rated
* Most Discussed
* Top Favorites
* Rising Videos
* Recently Featured
* Most Responded

Controversies over video rankings

The viewing figures of some YouTube videos have been the subject of controversy, since there have been claims that automated systems have been used to inflate the amount of views received, which is forbidden by YouTube's terms of service. [61] In March 2008, an unofficial video of the song Music Is My Hot Hot Sex by the Brazilian band Cansei De Ser Sexy briefly held the number one slot for the all-time most viewed video, with around 114 million views. It was temporarily removed from YouTube after allegations of automated viewing or hacking, before being deleted by the uploader. [62] A spokesperson for YouTube commented: "We are developing safeguards to secure the statistics on YouTube. Although it is somewhat difficult to track how often this happens, it is not rampant. As soon as it comes to our attention that someone has rigged their numbers to gain placement on the top pages we remove the video or channel from public view." [63] Clarus Bartel from Italy, who had uploaded the video, denied attempting to boost its ranking, stating: "These gimmicks do not belong to me. I've got nothing to do with it. The accusations geared towards me have saddened me greatly." [64]

The YouTube video of the Avril Lavigne song Girlfriend has also been accused of having an exaggerated number of views due to the use of a link with an auto-refresh mechanism posted by AvrilBandAids, a fansite devoted to Avril Lavigne. Clicking on the link will automatically reload the YouTube video of Girlfriend every fifteen seconds. Fans of Avril Lavigne are encouraged to: "Keep this page open while you browse the internet, study for exams, or even sleep. For extra viewing power, open up two or more browser windows at this page!" [65] The video of Girlfriend overtook Evolution of Dance by Judson Laipply as the all-time most viewed video on YouTube in July 2008. As of August 2008, both videos have received around 95 million views. [66] [67]

A YouTube video featuring the anime franchise Evangelion has a view count of around 97 million (as of August 2008), but has been barred from the YouTube charts due to automated viewing. [68]

YouTube Video Awards

Main article: YouTube Awards

In 2006, YouTube presented the annual YouTube Video Awards.[69] Categories include "'most adorable video ever" and "most creative." YouTube nominates the contenders, and users decide the winners. Only original, user created videos are nominated. Nominees for the 2006 awards included Peter Oakley (geriatric1927), LonelyGirl15, thewinekone, Renetto, Nezzomic, and Chad Vader.[70][71]

Recent events

Political campaigning

Political candidates for the 2008 U.S. Presidential election have been using YouTube as an outlet for advertising their candidacies. Voters can view candidate statements and make videos supporting (or opposing) presidential candidates (e.g., videos for Ron Paul, Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and Joe Biden.)[72][73] Third Party presidential candidates have also made extensive use of YouTube. Libertarian Steve Kubby's campaign debuted a short animated film, featuring the faces and voices of campaign contributors who financed its production, on YouTube on September 29th, 2007.[74] The U.S. media has often commented that YouTube played a significant role in the 2006 defeat of Republican Senator George Allen due to a video clip of him making allegedly racist remarks that was continuously replayed by YouTube viewers during the campaign.[75][76][77][78][79] Political commentators such as James Kotecki have also joined the YouTube world of politics. Many commentators make videos on YouTube critiquing a presidential candidate's YouTube videos, or simply using YouTube as a medium to get their opinions heard. Recently, French and Italian politicians, such as Antonio Di Pietro, have also been using the site as part of their campaigns. YouTube has also been used by former Australian Prime Minister John Howard in the lead up to the 2007 federal election.

CNN-YouTube presidential debates
The CNN-YouTube Republican Debate on 2007-11-28
The CNN-YouTube Republican Debate on 2007-11-28

Main article: CNN-YouTube presidential debates

In the run up to the 2008 Presidential elections, CNN aired a debate in which candidates fielded questions selected from a pool submitted by users of YouTube. Because of the use of technology to aggregate questions from a wide range of constituents, the forum has been referred to as "most democratic Presidential Debate ever".[80]

April Fools'

For the 2008 April Fools' Day prank, every "Featured Video" on the front page redirected to Rick Astley's "Never Gonna Give You Up," effectively rickrolling everyone who attempted to watch a featured video on the site.[81]

See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
At Wikiversity, you can learn about: YouTube

* Alternative media
* Comparison of video services
* List of Internet phenomena
* List of YouTube celebrities
* User-generated content
* Viral video


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30. ^ (February 23, 2008). BBC News YouTube outage blamed on Pakistan Sunday, 24 February 2008, 22:38 GMT
31. ^ (February 27, 2008). Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban Silicon Republic. Accessed February 27, 2008.
32. ^ "Pakistan lifts YouTube ban", ABC News (2008-02-26). Retrieved on 2008-02-26.
33. ^ Reference
34. ^ AustralianIT (2007-03-06). "States still hold out on YouTube".
35. ^ Internetnews: YouTube's Not-so-'Friendly' Spam
36. ^ Adobe Flash Player Version Penetration Adobe
37. ^ YouTube's help section states: "You can no longer upload videos longer than ten minutes regardless of what type of account you have. Users who had previously been allowed to upload longer content still retain this ability, so you may occasionally see videos that are longer than ten minutes." The ten minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube realized that the majority of videos over this length were from television shows and films.
38. ^ "Multi-Video Upload". YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-06-04.
39. ^ Coding Horror: Did YouTube Cut the Gordian Knot of Video Codecs?
40. ^ In which formats YouTube officially accepts uploaded videos
41. ^ Verified by analyzing internal structure of, and playing, newly uploaded videos, 2007-11-19
42. ^ Baekdal, Thomas. "YouTube in High-resolution". Retrieved on 2008-06-08.
43. ^ VYouTube launches HQ videos
44. ^ "Stereo Audio Demonstration". YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
45. ^ "Official YouTube Gadget". Retrieved on 2008-06-09.
46. ^ "Can I download videos to watch later?". YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-06-09.
47. ^,, etc.
48. ^ "How do I create or edit video annotations?". YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-06-04.
49. ^ "YouTube Annotations Demonstration". YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-06-04.
50. ^ a b YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand
51. ^ a b c d e f g h i Google launches YouTube France News - PC Advisor
52. ^ YouTube Canada Now Live
53. ^ YouTube Germany Launches
54. ^ Chita • 檢視主題 - YouTube 台灣版推出
55. ^ YouTube now has an Indian incarnation
56. ^ Chita • 檢視主題 - YouTube 台灣版推出
57. ^ Commercial Radio
58. ^ CableTV
59. ^ "Long-standing YouTube ban lifted only for several hours". Today's Zaman. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.
60. ^ "YouTube page on "most viewed"". Retrieved on June 27, 2008.
61. ^ YouTube's Terms of Use (4H) state: You agree not to use or launch any automated system, including without limitation, "robots," "spiders," or "offline readers," that accesses the Website in a manner that sends more request messages to the YouTube servers in a given period of time than a human can reasonably produce in the same period by using a conventional on-line web browser.
62. ^ Hutcheon, Stephen. "Mystery over zapped Hot Hot Sex YouTube clip". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
63. ^ "YouTube questions Hot Sex video". Metro News. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
64. ^ Richards, Jonathan. "YouTube chart topper provokes web backlash". The Times. Retrieved on 2008-06-27.
65. ^ "Help Avril Lavigne's "Girlfriend" Break a YouTube Record!!". Retrieved on 2008-07-07.
66. ^ Wortham, Jenna. "Cheating Fans Give Avril Lavigne a YouTube Lift". Wired News. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
67. ^ Ingram, Matthew. "Avril is an anagram for "viral"". Toronto Globe and Mail. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
68. ^ "Panda Disculpa los Malos Pensamientos (Evangelion)". YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-07-07.
69. ^
70. ^ Coyle, Jake (March 19, 2007). "YouTube to announce awards for user video", MSNBC / Associated Press.
71. ^ staff (March 19, 2007). "YouTube to present video awards", BBC News.
72. ^ Tamara Lytle (2007-04-15). "Web spurs revolution in race for president", Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
73. ^ Jose Antonio Vargas (2007-06-17). "'Ron Paul, who?' no longer applies GOP hopeful big hit in YouTube videos", San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-06-23.
74. ^ Kubby for President (2007-09-29). "Steve Kubby for President 2008", YouTube. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
75. ^ Andrew Kantor (2006-11-16). "We would be well served to delete others' missteps in Web's archive", USA Today. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
76. ^ Carrie Budoff (2007-02-02). "Senators Fear Having A "Macaca" Moment: Smallest Slip-Ups Can Tank A Campaign, Thanks To YouTube", CBS News. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
77. ^ Andrew Sullivan (2007-02-04). "Video power: the potent new political force", The Sunday Times. Retrieved on 2007-04-28. "Without a hostile videocam and the blogosphere, Allen would have cruised on to victory. But the damning video found its way to YouTube, and then it was carried by the TV networks, and before long Allen’s attempt at re-election hit a brick wall."
78. ^ Frank Rich (2006-11-12). "2006: The Year of the 'Macaca'", The New York Times.
79. ^ Howard Kurtz, Glenn Reynolds, Ryan Lizza, Andrea Koppel. Reliable Sources [TV-Series]. CNN Reliable Sources. "Allen used a word that some European countries consider a racial slur against an Indian-American volunteer for his Democratic opponent Jim Webb. And the web cam posted it on the popular web site, where it's been seen more than 100,000 times."
80. ^ O'Brien, Luke (2007-06-14). "YouTube and CNN Discuss "Most Democratic" Presidential Debate Ever". Wired Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
81. ^ Arrington, Michael (2008-03-31). "YouTube RickRolls Users", TechCrunch. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.

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